Fostering Civil-Military Relations: US Academies Emphasize..
Civil-Military RelationsCivil-Military Relations

Introduction: The Civil-Military Relations

The U.S. Military Academy, along with other service academies, grapples with the challenge of fostering Civil-Military Relations while preparing the next generation of military officers amidst deepening political divisions in the country. In Maj. Joe Amoroso’s American Politics class, the emphasis is clear – loyalty to the Constitution above all. This loyalty, he asserts, transcends individual candidates or personalities occupying positions of power.

Importance of Loyalty to the Constitution

At the heart of the discussion lies the significance of loyalty to the Constitution. Amoroso’s message resonates with the broader concerns about the military’s role in a politically charged environment, emphasizing the crucial aspect of civil-military relations. As former President Donald Trump contemplates a return to the White House, questions arise about how the military may be employed and the impact of partisan rhetoric on military leadership.

Political Polarization and Military’s Role

The military’s role comes under scrutiny as the specter of Trump’s aggressive agenda, including the potential use of the military in unprecedented ways, looms. The concern extends beyond Trump’s term, with President Joe Biden cautioning against the divisive rhetoric surrounding the military and its leadership, acknowledging the delicate balance of civil-military relations.

Education at Service Academies

Service academies, including West Point, acknowledge the national mood and the potential infiltration of political divisions into the military. Courses on the Constitution and the history of civilian-military relations form a crucial part of the curriculum for cadets and midshipmen drawn from across the United States.

Oaths and Their Significance

Each graduate, upon commissioning, takes multiple oaths, a practice underscored by retired Army Gen. Mark Milley in his retirement address. The oath, he emphasized, is not to an individual but to the Constitution, distancing the military from allegiance to any specific leader and reinforcing the importance of clear civil-military relations.

The Oath Project at the Air Force Academy

Air Force Academy
The Oath Project at the Air Force Academy

The aftermath of the Jan. 6 attack on the U.S. Capitol prompted introspection among Air Force Academy cadets. The resulting Oath Project, initiated by cadets, aimed to delve into the history and purpose of their oaths, ensuring a comprehensive understanding of the commitment they make as future officers and enhancing civil-military relations.

Addressing Lack of Education on Oaths

The Oath Project shed light on the lack of detailed education about oaths, prompting changes in commissioning ceremonies and basic training. The initiative sought to elucidate the ‘why’ behind the oaths, differentiating the U.S. military’s allegiance to the Constitution from other countries’ allegiance to sovereigns or individuals, contributing to a clearer understanding of civil-military relations.

Changes and Integrations Resulting from the Oath Project

The impact of the Oath Project extended beyond ceremonies, influencing basic training and handbooks. The group’s work became an integral part of cadets’ academic and military training, with plans for future symposiums to share insights with other service academies and ROTC units, fostering a collective commitment to maintaining healthy civil-military relations.

Constitution and Oaths at West Point

At West Point, the Constitution and oaths are not confined to the classroom; they permeate the campus. The Constitution Corner Monument and historical portraits in Grant Hall serve as constant reminders of the oath’s significance in the military’s history and the importance of strong civil-military relations.

Historical Context: Grant and Eisenhower

Historical figures like Ulysses S. Grant and Dwight D. Eisenhower add depth to understanding the oath and the civilian-military relationship. Grant’s leadership during the Civil War and Eisenhower’s use of the Insurrection Act for societal integration highlight the enduring connection between military service and constitutional principles, shaping the historical perspective on civil-military relations.

The Goal of Training Officers

While the primary goal remains to train officers capable of winning wars, current events, including Jan. 6, are integral to the curriculum. Brig. Gen. Shane Reeves emphasizes the importance of cadets being informed and thoughtful about their obligations, maintaining the trust of the American people, and staying nonpartisan, crucial elements in preserving positive civil-military relations.

The Role of Current Events in Education

Ignoring or avoiding discussions about significant events like Jan. 6 is not an option in military education. The interconnectedness of current events with the training of future officers ensures that cadets are equipped to navigate and understand the complexities of the contemporary political landscape, contributing to their understanding of civil-military relations.

Avoiding Partisanship in the Military

In Amoroso’s American Politics class, cadets are reminded that, despite personal opinions, the military should not be seen as partisan. Negotiating political conflicts with a foundation of loyalty to the Constitution becomes a guiding principle for these future officers, emphasizing the importance of maintaining nonpartisan civil-military relations.


In navigating the challenges posed by political divisions, US military academies remain steadfast in instilling the importance of loyalty to the Constitution. The Oath Project and similar initiatives underscore the commitment to a comprehensive understanding of military oaths, ensuring officers are prepared to navigate the complexities of a politically charged environment with nonpartisan dedication to the nation’s democratic values and fostering healthy civil-military relations.


  1. How do military academies address the potential infiltration of political divisions into the armed forces?

Ans:    Military academies emphasize loyalty to the Constitution above individual candidates, fostering nonpartisanship and maintaining strong civil-military relations.

  1. What prompted the initiation of the Oath Project at the Air Force Academy?

Ans:    The Jan. 6 attack on the U.S. Capitol prompted cadets to reflect on their oaths, leading to the creation of the Oath Project and a renewed focus on civil-military relations.

  1. How has the Oath Project influenced military education beyond commissioning ceremonies?

Ans:    The Oath Project has led to changes in basic training, and handbooks, and is integrated into cadets’ academic and military training, contributing to a clearer understanding of civil-military relations.

  1. Why is the Constitution emphasized at West Point beyond classroom teachings?

Ans:    The Constitution Corner Monument and historical portraits in Grant Hall are constant reminders of the Constitution’s significance and role in shaping civil-military relations.

  1. How do military academies balance the goal of training officers with addressing current events?

Ans:    Military academies integrate discussions on current events, like Jan. 6, into the curriculum to ensure officers are informed and thoughtful, promoting a nuanced understanding of civil-military relations.

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